A B C D E F G H I L M N O
P Q R S T U X

BAD HABITS

Action which has become a repeated behavior, almost an automatism. Habits such as nail biting (nail biting), thumb sucking, biting pens can lead to damage of skeletal development or increase the normal tooth wear for a 'functional excess of them.

TARTAR REMOVAL

A dental procedure to remove tartar from above or below the gingival; It can be performed by ultrasound mechanical or  manual instruments.

DENTAL ABRASION

The physiological tooth wear due to their masticatory function. This wear is increased in people who have a tendency to grind their teeth (bruxism) or tighten abnormally, a bite is therefore recommended to protect the elements from these bad habits. In such subjects tendency to tooth sensitivity is also increased.

GINGIVAL ABRASION

Gingival lesions caused by traumatic brushing maneuvers.

ABUTMENT

Components implant which acts as an interface between the intraosseous implant and the crown that will be cemented or screwed.

ACUTE

Starts quickly, short lasting with severe and pronounced symptoms; opposite of chronic.

CROWDING

An overlap of teeth which, during their eruption, did not find the correct place in the arch,this causing overlapping, making hygiene difficult (tooth decay more frequent) and altering the appearance of the smile. The resolution for most cases is orthodontic care

AFTA

A lesion often located on the oral mucosa that can cause pain and can occur at any age and is associated with stress and physical debilitation.

DENTAL AGENESIS

The lack of one or more genetic dental germs, often lack wisdom teeth, premolars and lateral incisors, the solution is prosthetic / orthodontic.

HALITOSIS

Halitosis is an unpleasant smell coming from the oral cavity, resulting in discomfort and psychosocial embarrassment for its issuer. Attributable to poor oral hygiene or systemic diseases. The most common conditions are periodontal disease and peri-implant, deep cariogenic lesions, disturbances of the gastro-intestinal or respiratory and taking medication.

DENTAL ALVEOLUS

Bone site where a tooth is attached by the periodontal ligament.

AMALGAM

Filling made of several metals including mercury, thanks to new and more aesthetic materials it is slowly disappearing from dental practices.

IMPERFECT AMELOGENESIS

Imperfection in enamel formation that seems thin and fragile .The tooth is yellow because the dentin traspares.This anomaly is genetically transmitted.

ANALGESIA

Absence of sensitivity; pain relief without loss of consciousness.

HISTORY

Collection for diagnosis of the patient's physiological and pathological background also investigating the possible genetic inclinations of his family group.

DENTAL ANKYLOSIS

An abnormal immobility between the jawbone and the dental element, the periodontal ligament appears absent. This disease prevents both eruption and orthodontic movement.

DENTAL ANESTHESIA

It means the administration of a substance for anesthetizing to disable sensitive stimulation in dental procedure. Different anesthetic molecules with added or less adrenaline can be used, to reinforce the effect and duration.

ANTISEPTIC

An agent that inhibits the growth and development of microorganisms

DENTAL APEX

The terminal part of the dental root.

APICOECTOMY

Surgical removal of the root apex of a tooth.

SLEEP APNEA

Reduced airflow caused by the tongue by leaning on the oropharynx. Apneas, if untreated, can cause an increase in blood pressure and other cardiovascular diseases, memory problems, weight gain, impotency, headaches. The problem can be solved with a bite that prevents the occlusion of the oropharynx

TMJ

The TMJ is the articulation, which connects the lower jaw to the temporal bone of the skull. It can be painful and noisy; It needs special care and check ups.

DENTAL ABSCESS

It is a collection of purulent exudate that forms within a tissue caused by infection of microorganisms. The abscess is characterized by a rapid and painful course, with all the features of inflammation: pain, heat, redness, swelling and functional impairment of the affected part.The dental abscess can be treated with antibiotics and proper root canal element.

PERIODONTAL ABSCESS

It is a circumscribed collection of pus in a cavity formed by the destruction of tissues and localized in the gum, bone in the pocket or in the periodontal ligament.

AVULSION

It 'a synonym for tooth extraction.

ORTHODONTIC BAND

Stainless steel ring for orthodontics, preformed, adhering to the tooth and cemented into place.

BIOCOMPATIBLE

Compatibility between a substance derived from biological fluids and / tissues of the recipient.

BIOPSY

Levy and examination, usually microscopic, of anatomical materials, in order to establish a diagnosis histopathology.

BITE

It is a medical device that has the function to be interposed between the dental arches.Generally it is typically used to relax the muscles in the presence of bad habits such as teeth grinding or bruxism, or to improve a situation of malocclusion that can cause discomfort to the articulation Temporomandibular .This device also works as protection for teeth wear out preventing dental abrasion.

BITE WING

Type of intraoral radiography used to evaluate the presence of cavities between the teeth that a normal clinical check up can miss especially if at initial stage.

BRACKET

Orthodontic bracket (metal or ceramic) which is fixed to the enamel to support the arch of the unit.

BRUXISM

Teeth grinding. Involuntary rhythmical and spasmodic rubbing of the teeth, usually during sleep. The power thus generated can cause trauma from occlusion and dental fractures.

CALCIFICATION

Deposition of calcium salts at the level of tissues and organs.

CALCULATION

Calcareous concretion of organic or inorganic substance. It is formed particularly in the salivary glands

PULP CHAMBER

Central portion of the crown of the tooth that contains the dental pulp (nerves and blood vessels).

ROOT CANAL

It is a channel inside the root of the tooth in which the vessels and sensory nerves pass and nourish the tooth.

ROOT CANAL THERAPY

Also called root canal treatment, has the aim to remove all the contents of the pulp chamber of the tooth and of the roots and obturate this space with an appropriate material to seal and prevent re-contamination with bacteria.We usually proceed to the root canal of the tooth due to caries, periodontal problems or trauma. If untreated, the tooth may experience painful symptoms in swelling to the formation of granulomas or cysts.

ORAL CANDIDA

It is a disease of the mouth which mostly affects immunocompromised and denture wearers caused by a fungus found in the mouth, an environment for its proliferation. Care after medical consultation is based on antifungal antibiotics

CARIES

It is a pathology of the tooth supported by several pathogenic bacteria responsible before the softening of the hard dental tissue and subsequently the formation of a localized cavity. If left untreated it can progress into the underlying tissues of the tooth until you get in the endodontic space necessitating root canal therapy.

ROOT CARIES

It is a decay that affects the root of the tooth, often more fragile because it is not protected by enamel, but only by concrete.

CARIES COLLAR

Caries that develop at the level of the neck of the tooth which is a transitional area between the enamel crown and the cement of the root.

CEMENTUM

Is a dental tissue that covers the root of the tooth, it has the same composition and hardness of the bone

ORAL SURGEON

Dentist specializing in interventions especially dedicated to surgical procedures such as tooth extraction, gum tissue surgeries, biopsies etc.

IMPLANT SURGERY

Protocols concerning the insertion, uncovering and removal of an installation and the repair or modification of the soft and hard tissues associated with it.

PERIODONTAL SURGERY

Troubleshooting morphology, location or amount of soft tissue and of underlying bone.

CYSTIS

Pathological cavity closed by a distinct membrane, containing liquid or semisolid material. Usually it forms a stimulus for inflammatory infectious starting from the tooth.

CLICK

Dry, short and snappy sound. In dentistry, referring to the ATM, the clicking noise or burst is perceived during the movement of opening and closing of the mouth.

CHLORHEXIDINE

A disinfectant mainly used in the mouth used to prevent colonization and to kill or inhibit microorganisms on the surface of the tongue, teeth and the mucous membranes. Concentrations are most common at 0.05%, 0.12% and 0.2%. It has some side effects including: pigmentation and altered taste.

COLLAR

It is a transition zone between the enamel crown and the cement of the root.

MOUTHWASH

The solution containing medicinal substances used in dentistry to rinse the oral cavity.

LABIAL COMMISSURE

Junction of the upper lip with the lower one, at the two sides of the oral rhyme.

INFORMED CONSENT

Voluntary agreement of the patient to undergo a treatment plan after they have been presented with, clarified and understood all the details of the treatment.

CONSERVATIVE

Branch of whose purpose is to cure caries diseases and rehabilitate the damaged area with direct restorations (fillings) or indirect (inlays and veneers).

The term conservative indicates the objective of such care, that is to keep your teeth from decay otherwise destroyed by the caries.

RESTRAINT

The restraining devices applied immediately after the removal of corrective appliances, to allow the stabilization of the teeth in their new locations.

TOOTH CROWN

Visible part of the tooth, covered with enamel that emerges over the gumline. It has an aesthetic, chewing and phonetic function.

ALVEOLAR BONE

The bone margin of the jawbone surrounding a tooth.

CHRONIC

Morbid process that continues for a long period of time. The opposite of acute.

CURETTAGE

 Periodontal surgical technique for the removal of the inflamed tissue that lines the soft wall of the pocket.

DESCALING

Loss of calcium salts by the body or tissue, especially in the bones or teeth, due to a low intake of calcium and a lack of vitamin D.

SWALLOWING

It is 'a physiological act in which food or liquid passes from the mouth to the stomach.

ATYPICAL SWALLOWING

It is an altered swallowing to an incorrect thrust of the food bolus or the interposition of the tongue between the dental arches.

DENTITION

There are the teeth that will be replaced by definitive ones. The deciduous dentition or primary consists of 20 elements (10 per arch).

The eruption of primary teeth takes place from 4 and a half months to two years;

At 6 and a half months the lower centrals erupt

At 7 months, the lower lateral and central incisors;

At 8 months, the upper side;

Within one year the incisor group should be erupted;

From 12 to 16 months the first molars erupt first the lower and then the upper; 16 to 20 months the canines erupt first the lower and then the upper; Finally, from 20 to 30 months of life, the second molars erupt.

MIXED DENTITION OR TRANSITION

Dentition of a teenager during the period when the primary teeth are replaced by permanent teeth. The mixed dentition occurs between 6 and 12 years.

PERMANENT TEETH

It is the dentition that replaces the milk teeth and remain permanently excluding dental problems or trauma. The permanent dentition consists of 32 elements.

WISDOM TEETH

They are the last molars, or third molars, also called the eighths. They can often not erupt and if present may cause problems because they rarely find a proper eruption space in the arch or because hygiene can become difficult to maintain.

INCLUDED TEETH

Teeth that have not found the right space to erupt in the arch, and remain under the gum (mucosa inclusion) or under the bone (bone inclusion). The most affected teeth are usually wisdom teeth and often the upper canines.

TOOTHPASTE

Gel that is used with a toothbrush to clean the surface of the teeth, in fact, the real cleaning power is given by the bristles, but the toothpaste can be a valuable adjunct to problems such as sensitivity, tartar, or the feeling of not very fresh breath.

FLUORIDE TOOTHPASTE

Toothpaste with a high concentration of fluoride that has the ability to protect teeth from cariogenic attack, reinforcing the smalt structure.

DENTIN

Dental tissue protected by enamel at the crown and protected by concrete at the root.

SCALING

A dental procedure in which all tartar and plaque is removed.

DIASTEMA

Space between the teeth, in particular the most representative is the one between the two upper central incisors.

RUBBER DAM

Essential to isolate the surgical field and proceed properly in conservative  adhesive care.

GRINDING

Bruxism

TOOTH DISCOLOURATION

Altered staining of teeth colour.

DYSGEUSIA

Alteration of the faculty of taste.

DYSODONTIASIS

An abnormal eruption of the tooth which often causes inflammation problems causing inability to properly clean the area.

DISTAL

Surface furthest from the median line of the mouth (the line passing from the nose).

EDENTULOUS

Complete lack of dental elements in the mouth.

ELASTIC SEPARATION

Elastic rubber used in orthodontics to create space between two elements and allow the treatment of realignment.

ENDODONTIUM

Space within the tooth in which nerves are present for the sensitivity and blood vessels for nourishment.

ENDODONTICS

Branch of dentistry that deals with and takes care of the endodontium.

ENDODONTIST

Dentistry doctor who specializes in treating endodontium.

EPULIS GRAVIDARUM

Benign swelling of the gums. It is often associated with pregnancy as there is an increase in hormone production such as progesterone and estrogen. The advice is to not be afraid and to consult your dentist, trying to maintain a good oral hygiene.

DENTAL EROSION

A weakening of the structure of the tooth resulting in wear due to chemical causes, such as abuse of acids (juices, coke ..), or due to pathological states of bulimia or gastroesophageal reflux.

INTRAORAL EXAMINATION

Inspection for diagnosis through observation and palpation of the mucosa, lips, tongue, palate, tonsils and floor of the mouth.

DENTAL AESTHETICS

Part of dentistry that deals with the relationship between the teeth, their colour (bleaching) and the relationship between the elements and perioral tissues, such as the lips.

PALATAL EXPANDER

Metal apparatus used in orthodontics that has the purpose to favour a  normal development of the skeleton during growth of the maxilla.

ETIOLOGY

Study of the causes that determine a disease.

VENEERS

They are the prosthetic restorations which are glued on the outer face of the front dental elements with the function to improve the aesthetics, thanks to an improvement of the shape and colour.

DENTAL FLOSS

Nylon or other material, waxed or unwaxed, which performs the task of cleaning your teeth in the interdental spaces that are difficult to reach with a toothbrush. It removes plaque, reduces bleeding and removes about 70% of food debris and plaque. This tool of oral hygiene is necessary to prevent cavities, gingivitis and periodontitis.

FIXTURE

It is the dial implant osseointegration in the bone which is practically the part that acts as the new root of the future dental crown.

FISTULA

It is a pathological communication by which the inflammatory liquid comes out of the site of infection through a tuboliforme.

FLUORIDATION

It is a practice used to increase the amount of fluorine (element which reinforces the dental enamel) in certain foods or liquids.

FLUOROSIS

Condition caused by excessive intake of fluoride during the development and mineralization of the teeth. The alteration on the teeth can appear as a small white spot or as a large brown pockmarked stain.

FORNIX

Anatomical arch shaped structure.

FRENECTOMY

The severing of an oral frenulum. The typical ones are frenulectomie of the tongue, to allow for greater functionality in the movement of it and that of the fornix of the upper lip.

FRENULUM

It is a small part of muscle tissue covered by oral mucosa which has the function of joining and retaining two bodies.

GUM

The gum is a type of soft tissue surrounding the teeth and covering the alveolar process. It can be divided into: gingiva, marginal gingiva, sulcural gingiva.

HYPERTROPHIC GUMS

Gums that due to disease or taking drugs appear swollen and normally reddened often prone to spontaneous bleeding.

GINGIVECTOMY

Surgical removal of a part of the gum, usually performed to reduce the wall of the soft tissue of a periodontal pocket.

GINGIVITIS

Inflammation of the gums mainly due to poor hygiene.

SALIVARY GLANDS

The largest and best known are: the parotid gland, the submandibular and sublingual.

GERMECTOMY

Extraction of tooth germ. Usually performed on wisdom teeth for orthodontic reasons or problems of proximity to other anatomical structures.

GLOSSITIS

Acute or chronic inflammation of the tongue, usually painful.

GNATHOLOGY

Branch of dentistry that studies the relationship of craniomandibular, malocclusion problems, muscle tension and nerve problems of the orofacial region.

GUTTAPERCHA

Material which derives from rubber that is used in dentistry to hermetically close the channels during a root canal treatment.

GRANULOMA

Lesion shaped nodule that occurs as a source of reactive inflammatory response. Very frequent at the apex of the tooth.

HERPES SIMPLEX

A viral infection that affects the skin and / or mucous membranes: infectious disease, caused by the homonymous virus, usually affects the face.Among the predisposing factors Herpes simplex include: drop in immune function, sunburn, infectious diseases, stress and hormonal changes. Herpes simplex usually begins with small rounded blisters, similar to grape bunches , responsible for burning, discomfort, itching and localized redness.

IRRIGATOR

Presidium of oral hygiene characterized by a jet of water that cleans between the teeth.

ORAL HYGIENE

It has prevention , educational and therapeutic purposes. Oral hygiene involves the removal of plaque, tartar and stains with mechanical devices and manual polishing of restorations present, the intraoral examination, detection of risk factors and motivation for a proper hygiene at home with diet advice,  to also discourage bad habits.

DENTAL HYGIENIST

Specialist degree in dental hygiene and procedures to carry out the maintenance of oral health and prevention of oral diseases.

DENTAL IMPLANT

Titanium structure that is surgically inserted into the bone to rehabilitate areas that have lost dental elements.

IMPLANTOLOGY

Branch of dentistry that deals with rehabilitating edentulous areas through the positioning of endosseous implants which emulate the function of the root. To date, the implants can be performed on almost all patients with few exceptions related to diseases and the presence of very little bone that could compromise its durability.

DENTAL IMPRESSION

Print obtained by appropriate materials, used as a permanent sample or for the production of dental restorations or prostheses.

INCLUDING DENTAL

Presence of an element that due to lack of space and endogenous factors it is unable to erupt properly in the arch and remains in the interior part of the bone or gum.

INCISORS

Dental elements above and below the front group, both in the primary and permanent dentition.We have four permanent central incisors and four lateral incisors.

PLAQUE INDEX

It is a very important index which takes the proportion between the tooth surfaces into account with and without plaque. The percentage that is obtained allows an assessment of the gingival inflammation due to poor hygiene.

BLEEDING INDEX

It is a very important index which takes  the proportion between the surfaces into account bleeding gingival and the  healthy ones. The percentage that is obtained allows an assessment of the gingival inflammation.

INLAY

It is a prosthesis manufactured in dental laboratories in composite or ceramic which enables severly compromised teeth aesthetics and functional return. This fixed reconstruction prepared outside the oral cavity, is then cemented in the studio.

INTERPROXIMAL

Relative to the space between adjacent teeth.

DENTIN HYPERSENSITIVITY

It is manifested by the perception of discomfort or pain caused by stimuli from hot, cold, sweet, acid, and by a very energetic brushing teeth or from contact with metal objects. It regresses when the stimulus is removed. Generally these symptoms are the result of uncovering collar teeth due to the recession of the gums. This phenomenon can be caused by several factors such as age, the accumulation of tartar in gingival pockets, the enamel wear for the incorrect use of the toothbrush, toothpaste as abrasive, from very acidic pH of saliva, etc etc ... .

ENAMEL HYPOPLASIA

Disease that causes a fragile or absent enamel structure in permanent teeth enamel due to incomplete development during dental education.

PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT

It is a set of fibres around the tooth to keep it in its alveolar place and to help it during the vertical and horizontal movements of mastication.

INJURY

Traumatic or pathological process that destroys the anatomic integrity of a tissue and leads to an alteration or a decrease of the normal functions of that part.

LEUKOPLAKIA

Epithelial thickening of the mucosa that is manifested by a characteristic white plaque due to excessive keratinization gingival epithelium. It is usually related to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption.

ROOT PLANING

Technique through which the tartar, plaque and cement springs from the subgingival portion is removed from the root surface, to make it hard and smooth.

POLISHING

In dentistry, polishing the anatomical crown of the tooth to remove external stains. By using rotary and air tools. Abrasives used to remove stains have a different texture and must be used according to individual patients needs.

GEOGRAPHIC TONGUE

It is a benign disease of the tongue characterized by loss of taste in some areas of the tongue

FISSURED TONGUE

Tongue whose dorsal surface and side looks furrowed with more or less deep cracks.

HAIRY TONGUE

Abnormality characterized by the presence of villous ramifications of variable length on the back of the tongue. Initially one that looks like a white lesion, it becomes black with the accumulation of pigments contained in substances such as coffee, tobacco combustion products not removed with a satisfactory oral hygiene.

MANDIBOLAR DISLOCATION

Such dislocation causes the blocking of the jaw in the open position. It serves a particular maneuver the doctor to return the jaw in place.

PERIODONTAL DISEASE

Pathology tissues supporting the teeth, therefore the gum, dental cement and periodontal ligament. The specialist provision for care of these problems is the periodontist.

MALOCCLUSION

When the occlusion between the teeth of the upper arch and those of the lower arch is not correct. Usually the causes can be of a tooth (due to an incorrect positioning of the teeth) or skeletal nature (alteration of the location or the development of one of the two jaws relative to each other).

SPACE MAINTAINERS

It is an orthodontic device which is used in the case of premature loss of deciduous teeth to prevent the closure of spaces,before the next permanent teeth erupt.

MAXILLOFACIAL

It refers to the jaw and face. The maxillofacial surgery is a medical-surgical speciality which deals with all the steps towards the resolution of disease (trauma, malformations, cancer, infectious and degenerative) and the aesthetic and functional problems of the face and facial skeleton.

MESIAL

Tooth surface that faces the centre line of the mouth.

MINERALIZATION

Precipitation of mineral salts in the intercellular substance of a tissue. It is the process of the formation of calculations or dental calculus.

BITE

It is the relationship of the closure between the upper and lower teeth. There are different types of bites: the open one where due to dental or skeletal problems the upper and lower front teeth do not close properly or vice versa when the upper teeth cover nearly or totally the inferior elements.

MUCOCELE

Collection pseudo-cystic hyperplasia of liquid due to the closure of a salivary duct of a minor salivary gland.

MUCOSA

The inner wall of the hollow organs (such as the oral cavity) which directly or indirectly communicates with the outside

MUCOSITIS

It is an inflammation of the mucous membrane that is around the implants, peri-implant mucositis can result in loss if not diagnosed and treated early. This is usually with treated with oral hygiene and professionally by hand and machine tools that do not damage the implant surface.

NECROSIS TOOTH

A tooth with tooth necrosis is one that has lost its vitality, or as a result of an infectious process or the traumatic nerve ending has ceased to function. The treatment in these cases is the root canal therapy or root canal treatment which allows to disinfect and seal the channel within which the nerve was contained.

ALVEOLAR NERVE

It is an important anatomical structure that runs along the mandibular body and takes the sensitivity to different structures. Care should be taken in case facilities in the posterior areas need to be made, which is why the dentist often requires radiological tests such as CT scans to assess the relationships between the bony structures.

OCCLUSION

It is the relationship between two antagonist teeth, one upper and the other lower, in contact with each other in the maximum intercuspidation position. The occlusion, if correct, is very stable and can be reached in the process of swallowing.

DENTISTRY

The field of medicine that deals with the care, health, prevention, diagnosis and medical and surgical treatment of diseases affecting: teeth, gums, salivary glands, the maxilla, the jaw, the 'temporo-mandibular joint, tissues neuro- muscle and the oral mucosa.

STOMATOLOGY

Branch of medicine that treats diseases of the mouth where the greek "stomatos" means mouth and gnatos means jaw. Please refer to dentistry for more clarification.

OPEN BITE

English synonym of open bite.

ORTHODONTICS

Branch of dentistry that treats malocclusions with the help of fixed or mobile devices. Orthodontic treatment provides an individual approach to each patient, there is no age limit ,in fact in older patients it is much sought after because you can reach maximum results, both aesthetic and functional.

FIXED ORTHODONTICS

Use of metal or ceramic orthodontic appliances that are glued onto the teeth to correct defects of malocclusion.

INVISIBLE ORTHODONTICS

Use of clear and invisible orthodontics used to correct defects of malocclusions. The most famous brand is Invisalign an American company that started this very aesthetic and functional method.

LINGUAL ORTHODONTICS

Use of tethers in the lingual elements, it has significant aesthetic features with the inconvenience of a repeatedly stimulated tongue.

MOBILE ORTHODONTICS

Troubleshooting through the use of mobile devices.

ORTHODONTIST

Specialised Dentist that deals with the treatment of dental and skeletal malocclusions.

OPG

Plate obtained by exposure to X-rays providing an overview of the dental arches (maxilla and mandible), adjacent structures and their relationships. Also called an overview.

ALVEOLAR BONE

Bone that incorporates the dental element and the other elements of the periodontal system.

OSTEOINTEGRATION

It means the structural and functional connection between bone (mandible and / or maxilla) and the titanium implant that has been inserted. It defines unity when space and movement between the bone and implant do not exceed 100 microns.

OSTEOPLASTY

Surgical technique which foresees the remodeling of the alveolar process to obtain a more physiological shape without removing the alveolar bone.

FILLING

Dental treatment used to treat a caries disease.It is usual to proceed with the cleaning of the infected tissue, disinfect it with different materials and the reconstruction of the cavity left by decay. Nowadays the most common material used is the composite that in recent decades has replaced the old unsightly amalgam (metal) .

OVERBITE

It is the vertical overlap of the upper incisors over the lower teeth. We can distinguish different types of overbite value: normal, moderate, profound and very deep.

OVERJET

It is the distance (in horizontal projection) between the upper and lower incisors during maximum intercuspidation.

DENTAL PANORAMIC

See orthopantomography

INTERDENTAL PAPILLA

Gingival tissue that is located in the space between two teeth.

MOUTHGUARD

A mouth guard is a protective device for the lips, teeth and gums used by athletes who practice contact sports such as boxing, wrestling, martial arts, rugby, American football but also football, skiing ecc. Types of mouthguards are from those already produced in various standard sizes and very adaptable,to thermoplastic materials which are modelled by applying them directly after heating in boiling water, or more in models which are produced directly from the patient's dental records.

PERIODONTITIS

Inflammatory disease often caused by bacteria that affects the supporting tissues of the tooth starting from the gum. This requires frequent check ups and maintainence of good hygiene, both at home and professional.

PERIODONTAL DISEASE

Degenerative disease of the supporting tissues of the tooth (gum, dental cement, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament). The treatment is provided by mechanical treatment and topical or systemic chemotherapy.

PERIODONTAL

System consisting of: gum, periodontal ligament, dental cement and alveolar bone. It has the role of keeping the elements in their dental seat and makes them functional in the presence of masticatory loads.

PERIODONTOLOGY

Branch of dentistry that studies and cures periodontal (peri = around; odons = tooth).

PERIODONTIST

Dentist specialized in periodontics.

PATHOGEN

Any microorganism capable of causing disease.

PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY

Field of dentistry that treats, studies and researches pathology of pediatric patients.

PEDIATRIC DENTIST

Professional who works in the field of pediatric dentistry.

PERCUSSION

The act of beating a side with small decisive taps, in order to collect, according to the assessment of the sound emitted by the percussion, diagnostic elements on the conditions of the analyzed areas.

PERIAPICAL

Term attributable to the tissues surrounding the apex of a tooth, including the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone.

PERICORONITIS

Frequent inflammation especially affecting the gum around the tooth crown or partially erupted wisdom teeth caused by poor cleaning of the area which can cause pain, swelling and difficulty in opening the mouth.

PERIMPLANTITIS

Inflammation of the tissues around the implant sites which if ignored can lead to loss.

DENTAL EXCHANGE

The process of change of the elements from milk to permanent teeth.

HEALING ABUTMENT

Implant prosthetic component to be screwed over the titanium implant during the healing of peri-implant tissues whilst awaiting the permanent crown.

PYOHRREA

The term is used to describe periodontal disease. It is characterized by:

gingival bleeding, pain, swelling with abscess resulting in increased mobility and eventual tooth loss.

In this disease there is a component of familiarity and many times also can accompany systemic diseases such as diabetes. Thanks to modern technology in dentistry and very frequent check ups accompanied by hygiene sessions can stop the disease. The main treatment of periodontal disease is the tartar removal and curettage for mild cases while resections for severe cases. Term disuse.

PLAQUE

It is a bacterial biofilm that just a few minutes after the last brushing a layer of salivary mucoproteins binds to the surface of the teeth. It is divided into supragingival plaque and subgingival plaque. This biofilm for deposition of calcium salts and phosphates is transformed into tartar.

PULP

Tissue inside the tooth which contains the vessels and nerve endings of the element.

PREVENTION

It is the set of actions aimed at preventing or reducing the occurrence of unwanted events. Prevention interventions are usually aimed at removing or, if this is not practically feasible, to reduce risks that can cause damage. In dentistry, primary prevention is to prevent the onset of disease and is addressed primarily to remove the causing agent, heal, raise individual defenses with a correct lifestyle and thus preserve the patient's health. Secondary prevention aims to detect and correct hazardous conditions or disease in the preclinical stage. It aims to stop the aetiopathogenetic process of a disease in order to prevent further progression of potentially fatal conditions, which, if not countered, may require the use of extended rehabilitation treatment or loss of teeth. Tertiary prevention involves the use of the most appropriate methods to replace lost tissue and to rehabilitate the patient to a level as close as possible to normal, after secondary prevention has been successful.

ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS

Administration of antibiotics to patients even in the absence of infection, to prevent a microbial colonization, therefore, avoid or reduce the complications associated with a clinical intervention or surgery.

UNDERSHOT

Jaw position placed more forward compared to the normal.

PROSTHETICS

Artificial element used to replace a part or the entire missing dentition.

PULPECTOMY

Complete removal of the pulp of a tooth.

PULPITIS

Inflammation, which can be very painful, of the pulp chamber that needs root canal therapy of the element.

PULPOTOMY

Emergency treatment carried out to remove the tissue of the pulp chamber and eliminate the pain caused by an acute pulpitis in a tooth that is going to necrosis.

DIAL

One of the four sections into which the dental arches are divided. They are determined by an imaginary line that passes through the incisors, dividing each arch into two halves.

ROOT

Part of the tooth inserted into the alveolar bone

RDA

It is an index used to describe the abrasiveness of the toothpaste, the lower the value the less the tootpaste is abrasive on the tooth surface.

High values of RDA (mainly used in whitening toothpastes) have a good cleaning power, but leave micro-scratches on the surface of the enamel.

GUM RECESSION

When the gum through traumatic or infectious stimuli retires it exposes part of the root, in this case it is called recession.

Problem often experienced by the patient is an increased sensitivity to thermal stimuli. It can be also called gingival retraction.

REMINERALIZATION

It is the reverse process to demineralization. The minerals are returned to the crystalline structure and the destruction of the tooth is stopped.

COMPOSITE RESINS

Very aesthetic new generation materials for  restoring and function. They are also used in the prosthesis as an alternative to ceramic.

ORAL RESPIRATOR

Subjects that due to ENT diseases or bad habits breathe through the mouth.

BONE RESORPTION

Bone lysis which leaves blanks.

RELINE

Dental procedure that is performed when a total or partial prosthesis has lost its fit with the tissues due to resorption of maxillary ridges. The dentist restores the that fit by rebasing the prosthesis to restore comfort and grip.

TEETH WHITENING

Professional or home care procedure that involves the use of chemicals for bleaching the dental elements.

SCALING

It is a procedure in which the dental hygienist cleans with manual or mechanical tools the tooth surfaces allowing healing of tissues inflamed by plaque and tartar. In relation to the specific location of the terminals can be supra and / or subgingival.

BRUSH TEETH

Instrument for interproximal dental hygiene, especially where such spaces have risen due to periodontal disease.

SEDATION

State of calm and quiet spontaneously or induced by the administration of drugs. Anesthesia indicates a slightly reduced state of consciousness, to allow the patient to maintain their ability to breath independently and continuously and to respond appropriately to physical stimulation and verbal commands. The purpose of conscious sedation is to make the patient free from fear, anxiety and apprehension during the clinical treatment.

DENTAL SEALANTS

Products normally containing fluorine used to create a sort of shield to the occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth to prevent the formation of caries. The sealing is usually recommended for children cario-sensitive or all patients with inadequate home care maneuvers.

GINGIVAL SULCUS

Groove of variable depth surrounding the dental element.

ENAMEL

It is the hardest and mineralized tissue of our body, located to cover the dentin of the crown and is composed of hydroxyapatite.

PERIODONTAL PROBING

The survey permits standardized and independent measurement of the periodontal pockets, recording all evaluation parameters of the disease and providing clear graphic processing easily interpreted by the patient.

INTERDENTAL SPACE

It is the space located between the interproximal surfaces of teeth. If it is close it should be cleaned with dental floss, interdental brushes or otherwise with other principals of hygiene.

SPLINTING

The dental splinting is a structure inserted to immobilize and stabilize teeth with a certain mobility.

STERILIZATION

Destruction by physical or chemical means of all pathogenic microorganisms and non microorganisms.

STOMATITIS

It is an inflammation of the soft tissues of the mouth, including the gums and glossitis.

INTERPROXIMAL SURFACES

Tooth surfaces which are located between the teeth.

TARTAR

Deposit of insoluble salts such as carbonates, oxalates and calcium phosphates and organic substances on the clinical crowns of natural teeth and implants. Tartar forms at every age both on the primary teeth and on permanent ones.

PERIODONTAL POCKET

It is when the alveolar bone, in periodontal disease, is reabsorbed and the gum, remaining in the same position, causes the formation of a biological niche where plaque and tartar is collected, easily colonized by anaerobic bacteria.

ROOT CANAL THERAPY

It is a synonym for root canal treatment.

TITANIUM

Biocompatible metal, non-toxic, bioinert. In dentistry, it is commonly used in the making of dental implants.

OCCLUSAL TRAUMA

Set of excessive force or hammering from bruising which causes pain or a dental- gingival pathology.

LOCKJAW

It is a painful contracture of the masticatory muscles which causes a block of opening and closing of the mouth.

ULTRASONIC DEVICES

Instrument for tartar removal. The electrical appliance to remove tartar transforms electrical energy into high frequency mechanical energy, in the form of fast vibrations.

TOOTH WEAR

Abrasion of the surfaces of the teeth over the years, but which may be accentuated by problems such as bruxism or malocclusions.

XEROSTOMIA

Dry mouth due to an inadequate secretion of saliva. This causes difficulties in swallowing and slurred speech. It can be caused by emotional processes or by drugs such as antihistamines or diuretics,cycles of radiation therapy, diabetes or sialadenitis.